CA History Standards:
7.6.1 Understand the development of feudalism and discuss its role in the Medieval European economy and politics
7.6.5 Identify and justify the causes of the decline of feudalism
7.6.4 Summarize the importance of the Church and its relationship with the governments in Medieval Europe
7.6.6 Explain the treatment of Jews in Medieval Europe
Flipped Classroom Lessons
William the Conqueror
Coat of Arms
Church in Medieval Society
Details and Commentary
How to Write a Limerick
Task: Write your own Limerick using a medieval theme!
Protestant Reformation and The English Church
DBQ Prompt #1:
Analyze the structure of the Church in medieval Europe, and explain the role it played in the daily social and political lives of medieval society, with an assessment of the impact it had on the treatment of Jews.
King Henry and Thomas Becket Perspective Cards
Protestant Reformation Perspective Cards
Church of England Reformation Perspective Cards
King Henry II 1154 - 1189
Henry owed his Kingship of England to his Norman mother Matilda, daughter of Henry 1st and his vast lands to his father Count of Anjou and his wife Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitou.
Thomas Becket was Henry II's Chancellor before the king made him Archbishop of Canterbury, even though he had never been a priest. Henry is mostly remembered for his quarrel with Thomas A Becket, and Becket's subsequent murder in Canterbury Cathedral on 29th December 1170.
Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was slaughtered in the cathedral by four knights acting on the rash words of the king, who is said to have proclaimed in a fit of temper: "Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?" Henry was devastated and ordered himself to be lashed hundreds of times as penance.
Henry spent at least £6,440 throughout the 1180s – more than a quarter of his average annual income – building and furnishing the impressive keep at Dover Castle in Kent. The great tower is thought to have been constructed as a show of wealth and power to 'impress' foreign pilgrims and dignitaries on their way to the shrine of Thomas Becket.
Henry's eldest son, also called Henry, died before his father so in 1189 his second son, Richard, succeeded to the throne.
Henry introduced trial by Jury for the first time.
He also set up civil courts in each county shire.
Henry brought the church under the rules of the civil courts. (His arguments with Beckett.) Prior to this, backed by the Pope, the Church was literally getting away with murder.
Henry introduced the law that no man can be tried for the same offence twice.
King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199
Third and eldest surviving son of Henry II. In his 10 years of reign he only spent 10 months in England, with the rest of the time being spent leading the Third Crusade*. He spoke very little English.
He is usually depicted as a brave, warrior king, and was given the nickname 'Lionheart'.
Robin Hood England’s favourite outlaw lived in Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire, during Richard's reign.
Richard had no children, so the next king was his brother John.
*The Crusades were a series of nine religious wars waged from 1095 to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Islamic rule.
King John 1 1199 - 1216
King of England from 1199 and acting king from 1189 during his brother Richard the Lion-Heart's absence on the Third Crusade.
John lost Normandy and almost all the other English possessions in France to Philip II of France by 1205.
Responsible for the Magna Carta (Great Charter) giving justice to all. The Magna Carter placed England on the road to a democratic state and introduced the lawyers in England to the concept of Human Rights as we know it now.
For a Christmas feast in 1206 at Winchester Castle, King John's orders to the sheriff included 1,500 chickens, 5,000 eggs, 20 oxen, 100 pigs, and 100 sheep.(1177 - John was appointed King of Ireland aged 11.)
Dark Ages-How Dark Were They?
Unit Assignments (Foldable)
Pictorial Input Charts
Important Big Book: Feudalism
Love reigns serenely in my lady's eyes,
ennobling everything she looks upon;
towards her, when she passes, all men turn,
and he whom she salutes feels his heart fail;
so that, with drooping countenance, and pale,
he then because of his shortcomings sighs:
before her, pride retreats and anger flies:
assist me, ladies, now to honor her.
All sweetness, all humility of thought
stir in the heart of him who hears her speak;
and he who sees her first is blest indeed.
And when she smiles her beauty is such as
cannot be told, nor in the memory held,
so fair, so new a miracle it is.
This oldest English epic, probably by an Anglo- Saxon bard from Northumbria, draws on Norse mythology as it portrays the warrior's quest for glory. Here the hero beheads the mother of the water dragon Grendel and the monster himself, using a weapon recalling Arthur's Excalibur:
Then he saw, hanging on the wall, a heavy
Sword, hammered by giants, strong
And blessed with their magic, the best of all weapons
But so massive that no ordinary man could lift
Its carved and decorated length. He drew it
From its scabbard, broke the chain on its hilt,
And then, savage, now, angry
And desperate, lifted it high over his head
And struck with all the strength he had left,
Caught her in the neck and cut it through,
Broke bones and all. Her body fell
To the floor, lifeless, the sword was wet
With her blood, and Beowulf rejoiced at the sight. ...
He...went walking, his hands tight on the sword,
His heart still angry. He ... took his weapon with him
For final revenge against Grendel's vicious
Attacks, his nighttime raids, over
And over, coming to Heorot when Hrothgar's
Men slept, killing them in their beds,
Eating some on the spot, fifteen
Or more, and running to his loathsome moor
With another such sickening meal waiting
In his pouch. But Beowulf repaid him...struck off
His head with a single swift blow. The body
Jerked for the last time, then lay still. ...
All that Beowulf took
Was Grendel's head and the hilt of the giants'
Jeweled sword; the rest of that ring-marked
Blade had dissolved in Grendel's steaming
Blood, boiling even after his death.
And then the battle's only survivor
Swam up and away from those silent corpses. ...
Song of Roland
First among French epics, this chanson de geste (song of lofty deeds) celebrates a feudal world prizing,prowess, loyalty, and honor. Below, the brave Roland, aware at last that his party is being cut to pieces, sounds his horn - too late. Charlemagne, persuaded by the traitor Ganelon that Roland is only hunting, delays turning back:
And now Count Roland in anguish and in pain,
With all his strength sounds the great horn again.
Bright drops of blood aye springing from his mouth,
Veins in his forehead are cracking with the strain.
That mighty voice cries out a second time;
Charlemagne hears it, high on the mountain pass,
Duke Naimon listens, and so do all the Franks.
Then says the king, "That is Count Roland's horn!
He'd never sounded it, except for an attack."
Ganelon says, "What battle can there be?
You have grown old, your hair is streaked with white;
The words you speak could well befit a child.
You ought to know how great is Roland's pride--
The wonder is God suffers it so long.
He captured Noples, and not by your command,
And then flushed out the Saracens inside;
He fought them all, Roland, your loyal man,
And then took water and washed the field of blood,
Hoping that you would not detect the fight.
Just for a rabbit he'll blow his horn all day!
Now he is playing some game to please his peers.
Who in the world would dare make war on him!
Ride on, I tell you! What are we waiting for?
We've far to go to see our lands once more."
There was an Old Man of Nantucket
Who kept all his cash in a bucket.
His daughter, called Nan,
Ran away with a man,
And as for the bucket, Nantucket.
Coat of Arms Activity-Heraldry
Directions for Activity:
1. Watch the video "Coat of Arms" (Left column up from here)
2. Read the text titled "Heraldry in the Middle Ages " (Below)
3. Look up any adjectives that you do not know, and begin to choose which colors/symbols you want to put on your shield.
4. Get a shield template.
5. Design your shield! Be prepared to explain to another classmate what your shield represents. This shield will become the cover to your Medieval Europe foldable, so make sure it looks presentable!
6. Play the game/click on the design your own shield link to design a shield online and see what it stands for.
Heraldry in the Middle Ages
In medieval times, every noble family wanted everyone to know how important they were. They also wanted to brag about their history. Since most people could not read, heraldry was invented. This was a way to brag about who you were without using words.
Heraldry was a design and short saying. Noble families designed a coat of arms that incorporated their heraldry (their design and short saying).
They put their coat of arms, showing their heraldry, on banners, shields, tapestries and anything else they could think of. Each part of the coat of arms has a specific meaning. Animals or objects were used to describe character traits - brave as a lion, for example. The colors were used as symbols of character.
Each heraldry was unique. There are many books describing what each of the symbols mean. You usually can find such a book at your local library. You can look up your name and see if your family has a coat of arms! Then you'll need to look what each symbol means. Once you have that information, you will know your family's heraldry.
The Language of HeraldryHeraldic Colors:
Yellow or Gold - Generosity
White or Silver - Peace & Sincerity
Black - Constancy (& sometimes Grief)
Blue - Loyalty & Truthfulness
Red - Military Fortitude & Magnanimity
Green - Hope, Joy & sometimes Loyalty
Purple - Royal Majesty, Sovereignty & Justice
Bear - Protectiveness
Bee - Industriousness
Camel - Perseverance
Dog - Loyalty
Double Eagle & Eagle - Leadership & Decisiveness
Dragon - Defender of Treasure
Falcon or Hawk - Eagerness
Fox - Cleverness
Griffin (part eagle, part lion) - Bravery
Horse - Readiness to Serve
Lion - Courage
Pelican - Generosity & Devotion
Raven - Constancy
Snake - Ambition
Stag, Elk or Deer - Peace & Harmony
Tiger - Fierceness & Valor
Unicorn - Extreme courage
Wolf - Constant Vigilance
Axe - Dutiful
Bridge - (signifies a governor or magistrate)
Crescent - Enlightenment
Crosses - Christian sentiments
Crown - Authority
Fire - Zeal
Flaming Heart - Passion
Fleur-de-lys (stylized Iris flower) - Purity (associated with France)
Hand - Faith, Sincerity & Justice
Heart - Sincerity
Horns & Antlers - Fortitude
Lightning - Decisiveness
Moon - Serenity
Oyster Shell - Traveler
Ring - Fidelity
Scepter - Justice
Star - Nobility
Sun - Glory
Sword - Warlike
Tower or Castle - Fortitude & Protectiveness
Common Design Features (heraldic terminology):
Bend - a diagonal stipe
Chevron - an upside-down "V"
Chief - broad stripe across top of shield
Dexter - the righthand side of the shield (from its user's perspective)
Ermine - a white fur pattern (with black tail tips)
Fess - broad horizontal stripe through center
Pale - broad vertical stripe through center
Passant - an animal shown walking
Rampant - an animal standing on hind legs
Sinister - the lefthand side of the shield (from its user's perspective)
Other important design details:
Besides simple fields of color, a coat of arms may contain other design motifs, such as checkerboards, polka dots, or fur patterns. One traditional design rule is that two solid-color fields shouldn't appear side by side unless one of the two is "metallic". Even this "rule" has been broken by many famous and historical coats of arms.
Rubric for Shields